Telecommunication (Analogue)

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Copper Weld

Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone over 100 years ago. At first, the telephone lines were separate lines that connected pairs of telephones. The telephone lines were single grounded wires made of iron or steel. Some wires were galvanized for corrosion resistance, but corrosion problems were never the less prevalent. The lines were single grounded wires and they were inherently noisy. Phosphor bronze wires and compound copper steel wires were made in attempts to decrease the noise in the lines. The benefits of using copper conducting wire were known, but the technology was not available to make a copper wire strong enough for an overhead wire. Then in 1877 Thomas Doolittle developed the process for hard drawn copper wire in the Naugatuck Valley of Connecticut. He had soft, annealed copper wire drawn through a series of dies in order to increase its tensile strength. The hard drawn copper wire was strong enough for overhead wires and copper took over the telephone wire market. In 1884 an experimental long distance telephone line made of copper was set up between Boston and New York. Thus, copper weld wire has been utilized and relied upon for years as a strong, non-rusting, efficient grounding conductor which combines the strength of steel with the conductivity and corrosion resistance of copper. These properties make it ideal for many utility, telecommunication, and general industry applications.

Telephone Cable

A telephone cable is called Category 3 or CAT3. It has 4 wires inside of the cable sleeve, 2 are used for data, one for power and one for ground. Though, Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone over 100 years ago. The first telephone cable line was set up in Boston in 1877. It connected the home of Charles Williams Jr. in Somerville MA with his Boston office. In Nigeria, the lines came into existence with the arrival of the telephone especially in the homes and offices of the then colonial officers. In most cases, two copper wires (tip and ring) for each telephone line run from a home or other small building to a local telephone exchange. The wires between the junction box and the exchange are known as the local loop, and the network of wires going to an exchange, the access network.

Paper Core Unit Paper Insulated

Telephone cables were employed for aerial, underwater and underground use around 1879. Early cables were single grounded wires followed by metallic circuits’ lines after their development. However, there was need for improvement; this led to the development of paper insulated dry core cable (which served as conductor). The dry core cables were successful because the lead tin alloy sheathing now provided adequate water proofing. By 1891 dry core, paper insulated cable was the standard. The size of the conductor and the electrostatic capacity requirement were further reduced and greatly decreased the noise in the lines.
By the late 1890's telephone and electric power cables were laid underground in conduits made of creosoted wood, and by 1891 dry core, paper insulated cable was the standard. The size of the conductor and the electrostatic capacity requirement were further reduced and greatly decreased the noise in the lines.

Binding Wire

This is a tapered fibre optic distribution cable that includes a plurality of drop cables having at least one predetermined breakout location where a drop cable is withdrawn from the tapered distribution cable. The drop cables are bound together to form the tapered fibre optic distribution cable by binding members or helical winding. Each drop cable contains a plurality of optical fibres which may be reconnectorized according to a user's preferences. It was invented by Brian Herbst and assigned to AFL Telecommunications LLC. The filing in US was on August 8, 2006. The Patent number is: 7590320.


A circuit or device that limits the instantaneous output signal amplitude to a predetermined maximum value, regardless of the amplitude of the input signal. This was introduced in the 1950s.

Universal Closure

A UC is a type of closure for tightening Optic Fibre Cables and for Splicing of cables. It has been in use from 1993 to date.

Cable Jack

(a) To understand a Cable Jack we first of all explain a Telecom Cable as: Cables primarily designed for the interconnection of telephone equipment which is installed indoors. Telecom UTP cables are terminated with standard connectors (plugs and jacks) or punchdowns. Therefore, a Cable Jack can be explained as a telephone cable plug that has a type of male connector used to connect a telephone to the telephone wiring in a home or business, and in turn to a local telephone network. It is inserted into its female counterpart, a telephone "jack", commonly affixed to a wall or baseboard. It is a connector of outgoing lines and bulk circuit. Modern Telephone Cable jacks were introduced in 1985.
(b) Cable Jacks: Cable jacks are used to lift, support and stabilise low and high voltage cable drums to enable efficient cable laying and pulling for low and high voltage cables - this includes hydraulic cable jacks, screw cable jacks and cable jack towers for lifting cable drum weights up to 30 tonnes. Standard hydraulic cable drum jacks lift 3 tonne, 6 tonne and 10 tonne weights. Registered jacks were introduced by the Bell System under a 1976 FCC order ending the use of protective couplers provided exclusively by the telephone company. The new modular jacks replaced earlier, bulkier connectors.

Cable Clamp

In the early 1900s, Cable clamps were used to make cable installation easier, and they provide protection from the damage that high winds inflict upon improperly fastened cables; damage that may lead to increased reflection due to mechanical stress.

Cable Roller

This is used to release the telecommunication cable and the power cable. It has been in use since the early 1900.

Cable Bearer

These are among the different types of cable bearers used from the early 1990s among which are:
a. Bracket Cable Bearer: A Bracket Cable Bearers are fixed to the Cable Bearer Wall Type by means of the Pins Locking Cable Bearer. They are made of galvanised cast iron and are designed to support all types of multicore cables and closures.
b. Cable Bearer Wall Type: Wall Type is used for supporting Cables in manholes and Joint Boxes. They are fixed to the wall of the chamber/Joint Box to accommodate the Bracket Cable Bearers.
Pins Locking Cable Bearer: Used to fix Brackets Cable Bearer to Cable Bearer Wall Type.